Minerals

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Minerals are vitally important to body functions

Minerals are the often forgotten essential elements for good health. People think of minerals in terms of strong teeth and bones, but minerals are far more important than that. Minerals are metals and inorganic compounds that are required for bone structure and numerous processes in the body. Every living cell depends on minerals for proper function, structure, and electrical conductivity. Vitamins cannot be absorbed, nor can their functions be carried out in the absence of specific minerals, in very specific amounts. Minerals are also dependent on vitamins for their absorption and function in the body. Minerals are more difficult for the body to extract from the food. Absorption from the GI tract is the first step to getting the minerals into circulation, it can be a fairly complex process. If you see any aspect of undigested food in the stool, you can be sure you are not getting your minerals. You find in the list of minerals below that many of them are essential for digestive processes and the absorption of other minerals.

In nutrition, minerals are either individual elements as identified in the Periodic Chart of Elements, or combinations thereof. Sea water is a blend of all known mineral elements that are bio-identical to the proportions found in the body fluids of healthy people and capable of replenishing our internal seas. Minerals are essential in the diet, playing a unique and multi-functional role as they act synergistically on all levels of all our body process. The body depends upon the action of minerals to activate the enzymes, vitamins and amino acids which perform all the functions we require for life. Every activity of every cell in the body requires a proper chain of events that start with minerals. Ionic minerals and trace minerals conduct and generate billions of tiny electrical impulses, every second of every day. Heart beat, brain function and the ability of cells to use osmosis to balance water pressure and absorb nutrients in the body. The ionic charge is opposite of the charge of the intestinal walls, which allows the minerals to be automatically drawn to the walls of the intestines, where, because of their minute size, they are readily absorbed at a near 100% absorption rate. Mother Earth Mineral’s process closely resembles the dynamic and intricate functions of nature. You must understand that in order for a mineral to be assimilated correctly on the cellular level, it must be in a form no larger than an angstrom in size. These angstrom-sized particles should also be completely water soluble, which allows the mineral to be quickly 100% absorbed in either the mouth (sublingually) or in the upper stomach where lower stomach acids will not destroy them.

Just how big is an “ANGSTROM”? Well, consider that it takes 10 thousand angstrom-sized particles lined up on a horizontal plane to cross the distance equal to one micron. What does this mean in ‘laymen terms’? Simply that every other ‘mineral supplement’ on the market falls far short because it is much larger than a micron in size, or is not taken sublingually. Because these water-soluble minerals are not necessarily dependent on the digestive tract of the body for complete absorption, they work exceptionally well for people with compromised digestive systems. They are also easier for children and older people to swallow than pills or capsules. The extremely small particle size provides a means for the mineral to leave the body if it is not needed at the time, lowering any risk of toxic buildup occurring.

Every mineral that exists on the earth, also exists in all living things. There are 92 known elements, 22 hypothesized others and hundreds of isotopic variations. The body uses and requires more than 80 minerals for complete balanced health. Scientists have only recently begun to understand the effects and interrelationships of minerals and their role in the function of human systems to maintain health and the adverse effects that are caused by mineral deficiency and imbalance.

Mineral absorption primarily takes place in the small intestines, where it is extracted from food and transferred into the blood stream through the intestinal wall by way of the villi. This can only happen if the minerals are in an ionic form. A mineral supplement needs to contain naturally ionized minerals that are in the proper relationship to other minerals, because too much of one trace element can lead to imbalances in others. Ionic minerals are required to maintain the proper pH in the body.

Just as the earth must maintain balance to function optimally, so too the body requires balance. When the body receives the right materials in their most natural form, the body is able to heal itself and maintain homeostasis. When the body doesn’t get the right material or they are in an unnatural form, disease slowly sets in and pharmaceuticals maintain disease. These are typically the two routes that people take concerning “health”. It is up to you to choose.

Cells require a full complement of all minerals to function correctly. Minerals are needed in the proper ratios, but more importantly, they need to be in the form that nature intended. The body is very simply composed entirely of minerals and water.

The hydrogen molecules in pure water act as a powerful solvent within the individual cells of all organs and tissues, providing nutrients and removing waste particles. Pure water must systematically replace it, or the cells of the body will die. Eventually the body will succumb to disease and die. The composition and quality of the water you consume is vitally important to the successful recovery of your health.

Essential trace minerals must also be systematically supplied and constantly replenished to replace what the body expends every day, but these elements need to be in the correct water soluble, 100% bioavailable liquid ionic form that is able to get into the cells, or the cells will begin to malfunction, weaken and become diseased. As the number of diseased cells increases, acute and chronic health problems and then premature aging and death will result. Always remember that your physical health is dependent on maintaining cellular health. The majority of human ailments involve chronic nutritional deficiency. Diseases may be contracted by direct exposure to bacteria, virus, amoebas or other pathogens, but an optimally functioning immune system was designed to defend us against these invading wee-beasts. The immune system requires proper mineral balance to maintain its strength and resilience.

Form

The earth was designed to naturally give us minerals and water via water and food. The roots of plants are designed break down the tightly bound minerals in soil and absorb mineral particles near an angstrom in size to facilitate osmosis and cell growth in the plant. They leave the micron size or larger mineral particles because the roots cannot assimilate the larger molecules. When the crops have used up all the available trace minerals in the soil, which takes about 12 years, then the plants become deficient in the depleted soil and become diseased, and ultimately die. The same is true of the human body. I have noticed that it takes about 12 years for chronic deficiency symptoms to emerge in my clients.

If the micron size form of minerals are not usable by plants, that have specially designed roots to assimilate minerals from the soil, they most certainly cannot be absorbed by our digestive processes. We are designed to get our minerals from plants. So too are the animals we raise for our food. However, current farming practices have depleted the soil of necessary minerals. Synthetic man-made fertilizers provide only enough mineral substance to support the basic need of the plant. Essential trace minerals that are needed for human life are not replenished. Water supplies have been poisoned with chemicals that leach minerals from the body. Stress causes the body to excrete nutrients, including minerals. Our last 3 generations have become more increasingly mineral malnourished. Processed and junk foods, microwave quick meals and commercial beverages have created even greater deficiencies leading to chronic symptoms and disease. All of this cannot be remedied by taking an improperly formulated mineral supplement.

Your mineral supplement should be:
Ionic - Possessing an electrical charge, drawn to the walls of the intestines.
Water Soluble - Highly bio-available angstrom sized ions in an aqueous solution.
Cell-Available - Available for absorption into the human cell, not only the blood stream.

Absorption

It needs to be understood that a mineral element that is bound with another element such as carbon turns it into a compound and therefore is significantly different, chemically and physically speaking, than the pure, isolated mineral element itself. For instance, a 50 mg. pill of calcium carbonate is much different from the pure metallic element of calcium. Calcium Carbonate is NOT pure calcium in exactly the same way that water (H2O) is a liquid compound much different from both of the primary GASSES Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) that make up the compound. Moreover, Hydrogen and Oxygen are flammable gasses, while H2O extinguishes fire. Calcium (Ca) is a metallic element, but when it combines with a carbon structure, it changes entirely into a compound better known as Chalk (Calcium Carbonate). Also, the amount of pure calcium received on the cellular level from the consumption of a calcium compound such as Lime or Chalk is dependent on a number of variables, including the individual’s digestive enzymatic structure. Therefore, it is quite possible that individuals that are highly calcium deficient are unable to have the enzymatic functions to absorb calcium from the foods they consume, and likewise a typical calcium supplement has little or no effect for the same reason. It must be understood that sublingual application of an ionic size mineral solution bypasses the gastro-intestinal tract, and the pure element itself is 100% absorbed into the bloodstream. The most important number is the amount of MILLIGRAMS ABSORBED, not the MILLIGRAMS CONSUMED.

While it may seem like taking 2.5 mg of ionic calcium as compared with a traditional 50 or 100 mg. calcium carbonate supplement is such a small amount, but consider that it is estimated that less than 1/100 of the actual mineral of calcium extrapolated from a compound form is absorbed on the cellular level IF THE INDIVIDUAL’S ENZYMATIC TRACT IS NOT IMPAIRED!! Therefore, the most a healthy individual could absorb on the cellular level from a 50 mg. calcium carbonate/citrate pill is typically .5 mg. The same ratios hold true on every mineral from Boron to Zinc.

Our society is realizing that proper nutrition is key to a long and healthy life. What we don't realize is that in today's world, modern commercial farming methods don't allow the soils to rest and restore. The end result is not the nutrient-rich food we believe we're getting. Most of the U.S. population is deficient in essential minerals.

Many people are turning to supplements to obtain their daily nutritional requirements. Unfortunately, most dietary mineral supplements currently on the market have extremely low absorption rates and are not as bio-available as the manufacturers and marketers would like you to believe. There is little benefit from taking dietary mineral supplements that are not being completely used by the body.

Minerals can be separated into two main groups.

Macro minerals and micro or trace minerals.

Macro minerals

are required in amounts greater than 100 milligram or mg daily.
These include:
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, and most of it is found in the bones and teeth. Calcium is used in almost every bodily function and is important for pH balance, tone, power, strength, longevity, vitality and endurance. Calcium is responsible for the transmission of electrical impulses along nerves, many enzyme reactions, blood pressure regulation, blood clotting, muscle contraction and cell structure. Calcium works synergistically with vitamin D, vitamin K, zinc, oxalates and dietary fiber.

Calcium absorption and utilization by the body depends on several factors. For example, if the overall systemic pH is off, it will be difficult to utilize calcium. Also, your hormonal function affects your ability to attain the calcium you consume from food or supplements, as well as whether or not you are adequately hydrated or if your digestion is impaired. Calcium works in tandem with other minerals (particularly magnesium), vitamins and fatty acids. For calcium to be absorbed, it needs an acidic environment. The body needs appropriate stomach acid in order to break down minerals, namely calcium. Also, low stomach acid can be a sign of low zinc because zinc is needed in the body to help produce stomach acid. If there is inadequate hydrochloric acid in the stomach you won’t be able to utilize the calcium you consume. Additionally, zinc is needed to help create the hydrochloric acid. If you are not eating a properly prepared, whole foods, nutrient dense diet, staying hydrated and improving your over all digestion, you could be eating all the calcium in the world and not be able to retain it. Most everyone gets adequate calcium in their diet, but are missing some or all of the co-factors to make it of use to the body in the way it is intended. If certain hormones in the body are dysfunctional, this will also affect our bodies ability to utilize calcium. This includes the parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal and sex hormones. The parathyroid hormone is primary in regulating the blood calcium levels. The mineralcocoritcoids produced by the adrenals are very important in regulating minerals, particularly sodium and potassium homeostasis, which has a role in calcium homeostasis as well. Women going through menopause have a much greater risk of bone loss. Estrogen and progesterone need to be in balance at this time to help with osteoclastic activity. Appropriate fatty acid intake in the diet is necessary for the calcium to be transported through the cells walls. Fatty acids also help increase the calcium levels in the tissues. There is a relationship between vitamin D and fatty acids that needs to be understood. Vitamin D gets the calcium into the blood, fatty acids get it into the tissue. Without appropriate fatty acids you won’t get calcium into your tissues, which is where a larger quantity of our body houses calcium. Vitamin D is necessary for calcium homeostasis and bone health. Supplementing calcium should include vitamin D3, not D2. Good hydration is required to ensure that the blood is fluid enough to efficiently transport calcium throughout the body to other tissues. Balanced electrolytes (electrically charged ions of calcium, sodium, potassium , chloride, bicarbonate) are needed to ensure an appropriate transfer of calcium in and out of  the cells. Antacids and acid blockers deplete calcium, but most people are unaware because testing is done on blood levels and only 1% of the calcium in the body is in the blood, which does not indicate the loss of calcium in the bones and tissues. Antacids and acid Blockers contain aluminum hydroxide, which prevents the absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract. Oxalates or oxalic acid is a substance which binds with calcium in the intestinal tract and actually prevents calcium absorption. Oxalates are found in spinach, beet greens, rhubarb and chard. A diet that consists of excess grains provides high amounts of phytic acid, which binds with the minerals in the intestine and blocks absorption, causing them to be excreted, unused.

Enemies to calcium include aluminum in body products, cook ware, stress, food containers, baking powder, foil and antacids, diuretics, oral contraceptives, excess exercise, liver and kidney disease, tea, sugar, coffee, alcohol and phosphates in foods and soft drinks. Soda contains excess phosphorous which leads to reduced body storage of calcium because they compete for absorption in the intestines. Soda also causes potassium loss. Coffee is a diuretic, causing calcium and magnesium to be lost in the urine. You will be losing potassium and sodium as well. The same goes for caffeine in general. Alcohol speeds up the excretion of magnesium through the kidneys. It can also deplete, calcium, zinc, iron, manganese, potassium and chromium. Sugar - For every molecule of sugar our bodies use 54 molecules of magnesium to process it. Insulin surges use up our zinc. Sugar also depletes magnesium, potassium and robs your bones of minerals in general. A high sugar diet results in increased losses of chromium through the urine. Birth Control Pills deplete magnesium and zinc, along with numerous other vitamins. And since they have a direct impact on our hormones this also plays with our ability to get the minerals needed. Cortisone is used for pain and inflammation, but it can contribute to severe calcium loss with prolonged use. It also depletes potassium.

Calcium deficiency symptoms include high blood pressure (hypertension), loss of muscle tone, muscle cramps, irregular heart beat or palpitations, Rickets in children, Tetany (a constant muscle cramp), Osteoporosis, and Osteomalacia. When calcium is not supplied in sufficient amounts from the diet, the body will extract it from the bones. Over time, the end result will be osteoporosis (weak bones). The best supplements will include magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin D, boron and iron. Calcium carbonate is poorly absorbed. Anyone with osteoporosis or osteopenia should check the pH of the stomach and check for adequate hydrochloric acid levels. Hyperthyroidism causes increased calcium losses and increased calcium resorption from the bone.

Maintaining calcium homeostasis plays a significant role in bone remodeling. Old bone tissue is continually being destroyed and broken down and new bone is continually being created. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that convert cartilage to bone. Osteocytes  are our primary bone cells, and they maintain bone tissue. Osteoclasts are the bone-destroying cells that help with the function in resorption. Calcium is only made available for other tissues in the body when the bone is broken down during remodeling. Bone helps to buffer the pH level of the blood through the release of calcium from the bone. Bone is a major buffer of calcium and calcium is a major buffer of blood pH. When blood is too acidic it will pull calcium from the tissues. And when the blood gets too alkaline, calcium can separate out and gets deposited into the wrong tissues, thereby causing problems if an excess occurs in those tissues. Calcium is also needed for every nerve impulse.

Calcium can be obtained from a wide variety of foods. Calcium and magnesium work so closely together, that if there is excess of one in the body, it will result in a decrease of the other. Balance is needed. So consuming foods with both is useful. Cows milk does not contain both. However, also beneficial is calcium from sources that also contain EFA's (Essential Fatty Acids), such as nuts and seeds. EFA's are needed for a healthy brain, nerve, immune and hormone functions. I obtain my calcium from kelp, sardines, molasses, figs, kale, turnip greens, legumes, watercress, dandelion leaves, walnuts, romaine lettuce, globe artichoke, celery, almonds, parsley, broccoli, salmon, apricots, eggs, pumpkin seeds, carrots, brown rice and whole goat yogurt. It can also be found in shrimp, sunflower seeds, buckwheat, olives, sweet potato, cabbage, whole wheat, brazil nuts, cashews, rye grain, blackcurrants, pecans and cottage cheese.

Chloride moves from blood plasma and enters red blood cells, leaving sodium behind, when carbon-dioxide enter the blood. When carbon-dioxide escapes from the blood, chlorine leaves the cells and enters the blood plasma, combining again with sodium (the base). This alternate movement of chlorine ions (inorganic chlorides) is called the chloride shift. The carbon dioxide tension of the blood determines the proportion of Chlorine between cells and blood plasma. Chlorine helps the body cleanse and expel waste, thus purifying the blood. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are important agents in the regulation of osmotic pressure in the tissues. Osmotic pressure is a process by which molecules of a solvent are able to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated solution, thereby equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane. Choline is the chief negative ion in the body, and as such, it is a main factor for regulating the bodies reactions, such as the action of ptyalin and pancreatic amylase, and the shift of chlorine ions between blood plasma and cells, helping carbon-dioxide carriage. Chloride is necessary for the body to manufacture glandular hormone secretions, the regulation of alkaline-acid balance in the blood, preventing the build-up of excess fat and autointoxication (poisoning of a toxin formed within the body itself), and the maintenance of proper fluid and electrolyte balance in the system. Choline works with manganese in the digestion and utilization of fat.

Deficiency leads to heat cramps, hair and tooth loss, impaired digestion and a disturbance of fluid levels in the body, as in Sjogren's Syndrome.

Sources of Chlorine include Sodium Chloride, but pure sodium chloride is poison. Real salt, which contains numerous minerals and is not "white" or ground, is the best source of sodium. Food sources include milk, water, wheat, barley, legumes, melon, pineapple, green leafy vegetables.

Magnesium is also very abundant in the body, and most of it is found in the bones, teeth and muscles. The rest is distributed between the heart, liver, kidney and brain. Magnesium aids in relaxing nerves, relieving daily tension. Assists digestion, activates enzymes important for protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Magnesium is important in muscle contraction and relaxation, the production and transfer of energy, assists nerve conduction. It aids regularity, restful sleep, keeps vertebrae in proper position, and purifies/purges body tissues of impurities. Magnesium is required for energy production, involving 300+ enzyme reactions, many related to ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate, which is the main cellular energy source in the body. Magnesium is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins in cell reproduction. Magnesium causes muscles to relax, which is an opposing function to calcium, which causes muscles to contract. Magnesium prevents calcium from entering the blood vessel and heart cells, which reduces blood pressure by limiting spasm and constriction. This is why my husband has spasm of the coronary artery, because he is a magnesium waster. It is needed for sodium and potassium to operate in cell metabolism and nerve function. Sodium pushes water out of cells and potassium pushes water into cells. That function requires magnesium to function properly. Magnesium regulates calcium metabolism by affecting parathyroid hormone, calcitonin (a hormone secreted by the thyroid that lowers blood calcium) potassium and sodium. Magnesium is needed for hormones to work in the body, helps prevent kidney and gall stones (made of calcium) and diabetes.

Deficiency of magnesium or too much calcium (causing magnesium malabsorption or excretion, which is more common than insufficient diet) in the diet can cause muscle cramps, menstrual cramps, PMS, sugar cravings, fatigue, nervousness, anxiety, palpitations, anorexia, anaemia, muscle twitches of the face, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), hyperactivity in children, high blood pressure, poor circulation, kidney and gall stones. Magnesium is primarily found in tissues and not in serum, so reliance of tests that measure it in the blood are not accurate to determine if the diet is adequate. Medical conditions that contribute to magnesium deficiency are pancreatitis, excessive sweating, resection of the ileum (upper part of the bowel), digitalis toxicity, congestive heart failure. Magnesium functions to regulate calcium levels, but also intracellular potassium, phosphorus (through its effect on energy production and ATP).

Enemies of magnesium include high calcium intake, alcohol, surgery, digestive tract irritation. Stress depletes magnesium. Athletes/Excessive exercising taxes magnesium reserves.

Foods that contain magnesium are many of the same foods that contain calcium; kelp, whole wheat, almonds, cashews, buckwheat, molasses, brazil nuts, pecans, rye, parsley, apricots, whole milk, eggs, celery, carrots, broccoli, sweet potato, dandelion leaves, and sunflower seeds. It can also be found in brown rice, hazel nuts, millet, corn, avocado, barley, garlic, green peas, blackberries, cauliflower, white fish, chicken, asparagus, beef, tomatoes and oranges. It is best to take a broad-spectrum multi-mineral supplement, which is balanced to prevent taking too much of any one thing. Magnesium absorption into cells requires vitamin B6.

Phosphorus binds with calcium in equal amounts to form bones; as calcium phosphate, so equal amounts must be supplied by the diet. Some phosphorus is distributed throughout the body as inorganic phosphate and in all cells as ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Phosphorus or phosphate is a main component of the genetic materials that make up DNA and RNA, and is a component in all major types of biochemical compounds, such as ATP and ADP (Adenosine Di-Phosphate). Phosphorus is essential for the formation of bones and teeth, required to activate B-complex vitamins, to enable communication between cells, in the construction of cell membranes, for all biochemical pathways in the body (cell division, energy products, etc), and the function of many enzymes. Phosphorus deficiency is rare, but symptoms include; general weakness, lack of energy, increased susceptibility to infection, mental confusion, speech problems, loss of appetite, anaemia, debility and osteomalacia. Phosphorus works with calcium in the formation of bone, but both have an antagonistic relationship in that excess phosphorus will decrease calcium levels. Phosphorus is required to activate B-vitamins.

Enemies of phosphorus include fast foods, soft drinks, processed foods.

Because both plants and animals require phosphorus, it is therefore present in all natural foods, making it abundant in the diet, so supplementation is not required. I get my phosphorus from nuts, meat, fish, cheese and whole grains.

Potassium is involved in virtually all body processes from fluid balance, protein synthesis, nerve conduction, energy production, muscle contraction and synthesis of nucleic acid to control of heart beat. Much of the work of potassium involves opposing sodium. The two positive ions are jointly balanced by the negative ion, chloride. Potassium neutralizes acids, restores alkaline salts in bloodstream, assists in metabolic processes, critical to cardiovascular and nerve function, assists in muscle energy, regulates water balance, vital in elimination of wastes. Potassium functions in the body by regulating heart function, reducing blood pressure, converting glucose into glycogen (fuel for muscle) and helping the lungs eliminate carbon dioxide. It is required for normal fluid balance, for protein and nucleic acid synthesis, for normal nerve and muscle function, kidney function and to maintain acid/alkaline balance. Potassium is an "intracellular", positively charged ion, which is actively pushed into each cell from surrounding extracellular fluid, while at the same time its opponent, sodium, is pushed out of each cell. This allows nerves to conduct "electrical" impulses and so communicate between cells and muscles to contract. For this reason also, potassium is essential for the heart muscle to contract.

Severe potassium deficiency quickly leads to electrolyte imbalance, which causes dysfunction in muscles, nerves and many other important systems. Other symptoms of deficiency include water retention, heart rhythm disturbances, palpitations, weak muscles, confusion, poor kidney function, low blood pressure, constant thirst, vomiting (which increases the rate of potassium loss). Potassium works with sodium to control electrolyte balance. Sodium and potassium are two positively charged ions that require the negative chloride ion to balance them. Enemies to potassium include sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, diuretics, antibiotics, caffeine.

Natural sources of potassium include lima beans, bananas, avocado, potatoes, tomatoes, oranges, peas, cauliflower, apricots, raisins, tuna, pork, chicken, salmon, cod and whole milk.

Sodium (Real Salt) is essential for life. It is found in the extracellular fluids and very little inside cells. It is necessary for digestion, elimination of carbon dioxide, normal cell function, muscle contraction, incl. heart, glucose absorption, the transportation of nutrients across cell membranes, electrolyte balance, and it excites nerve function. Sodium maintains blood reaction by acting as a buffer and assists in the the chloride shift. It controls the reaction of urine by altering the proportion of acid and alkaline phosphates in the kidneys and maintains water balance. It regulates the reaction of pancreatic juice and bile, due to sodium bicarbonate. It regulates the pressure of body fluids. Sodium takes part in various reactions in the stomach, including the production of hydrochloric acid for the digestion of protein. It also rectifies defective fat absorption. Food sources include whole grains, celery, bananas, water, milk, legumes, green leafy vegetables, beets, fruits, fish and meats.

Deficiency causes lung infections, retards bone growth, reduces osteoid tissue, slows the reduction in fat deposits, muscle cramps and atrophy, testis, heat exhaustion, edema. Excess sodium increases blood pressure, contributes to cirrhosis of the liver and congestive cardiac disorders, renal diseases, water retention and stomach ulcers. Avoid Sodium Chloride. Sodium chloride intake in the Western diet has no doubt been a source of ill health since the 1950's, including being implicated in heart disease, stroke and cancer, but with all the focus being on sodium, what has been ignored is potassium deficiency, poor nutrition from processed foods, antibiotic use, dehydration and hydrogenated oils, all of which affect heart health.

Sulfur aids in the elimination of toxins, supports blood circulation, scavenges free radicals, beautifies the skin, flexible bond connects cells, the lubricant found between joints, and may support myelin sheath for nerve protection.

Deficiency is indicated by the following symptoms: Itching skin, eczema, acne, diaper rash, migraine headaches, flatulence, indigestion, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, impotence, painful and irregular menstruation, sore throat, toothache, nosebleeds, measles, joint pain, hay fever, hot and cold sweats, bed wetting, breastfeeding problems.

Food sources of sulfur include artichoke, arugula, avocado, bee pollen, dill, horseradish, onions, garlic, leeks, broccoli, kale, collards, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, turnips, bok choy, kohlrabi, radish, cabbage, legumes, peaches, pears, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes. Cruciferous vegetables are rich sources of sulfur-containing substances known as glucosinolates, which impart a pungent aroma and slightly bitter taste. During the process of digestion, glucosinolates break down into compounds known as insoles and insothiocyanates, which are highly beneficial substances. Protein-rich foods, such as fish, poultry, eggs, nuts and legumes are good dietary sources of sulfur. Cysteine and methionine are two sulfur-containing amino acids which serve as key sources of sulfur for building tissues, but it also serves as a cofactor for certain enzymes, which are substances that help the body produce chemical reactions.

Trace minerals

are needed by the body in lesser amounts, which are often measured in micrograms or mcg.
These include:
Boron is found primarily in bone, but is also in the thyroid gland. Boron is essential for bone health, memory and brain function, and regulates hormones. Boron works with calcium and vitamin D. Boron converts vitamin D from an inactive to an active form, which assists in the absorption and utilization of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the body. Boron reduces the amount of calcium that is lost via urine. Boron controls cell growth and help to check abnormal cell growth.

Symptoms of deficiency include, bone and joint diseases, tumors, cysts depression and increasing the effects of stress.

Natural sources of Boron are found in organic produce, like prunes, raisins, dates, apple, pear, red wine, hazelnuts, peanuts, almonds, carrots and legumes. Supplementation with boron chelates, is fairly bioavailable.

Chromium is needed for liver synthesis, to regulate metabolism, maintain healthy insulin and blood sugar levels. It aids weight loss and helps to prevent diabetes, because it is involved in controlling blood sugar levels, the conversion of sugar to energy, helps protein turn into muscle and helps insulin metabolize fat. It is the main ingredient in GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor) and assists with insulin reducing blood glucose by stimulating glucose uptake by the muscles and other tissues. When chromium levels are low, the circulating level of GTF is also low, so insulin is less effective in reducing blood sugar. High blood sugar levels then stimulate the release of more insulin, which is then less effective. This cycle is known as "insulin resistance". Insulin prevents fat metabolism and stimulates fat storage. Chromium in the diet helps the body metabolize fat so it can be used as fuel. Chromium also moderates cholesterol levels, contributes to lean muscle mass, promotes heart health, boost immunity, and stimulates protein synthesis; taking protein where it's needed and also helps with growth.

Enemies of Chromium include age, injury, surgical operations, highly refined carbohydrate diets, strenuous exercise and lack of exercise.

Deficiency is indicated by the presence of glucose intolerance, such as hypo or hyper glycemia, and dramatic mood fluctuations, especially after consuming high GI carbohydrate meals. High blood pressure, Type II diabetes, heart disease, stroke, obesity, fatigue, atherosclerosis, protein-energy malnutrition and high cholesterol are linked to Chromium deficiency.

Sources of Chromium include egg yolks, molasses, beef, cheese, calf liver, grape juice, whole wheat, raw cane sugar, rye, honey, potatoes, green bell pepper, chicken legs, apples, corn, spinach, bananas, carrots, haddock and blueberries. Supplement with ionic minerals.

Cobalt is necessary to maintain and repair the myelin sheath, transport glucose from the blood into body cells, and manufacture/absorb B-Complex vitamins, so it is an essential component of vitamin B12. It is required for the normal function of the pancreas, essential for hemoglobin formation and is necessary for the first stage of hormone production (the capture of iodine by the gland). It supports normal nervous system function, helps red blood cell production and is involved in preventing anemia.

Excessive loss of vitamin B12 is a sign of Cobalt deficiency. Other symptoms of deficiency include nausea, heart failure, goiter, kidney damage, nerve damage and hypothyroidism.

Abundant sources of Cobalt can be found in foods that are also rich in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, shellfish, milk, liver, mushrooms and seaweed. Cobalt is not found in fruits or vegetables, which explains why I became vitamin B12 deficient when I was eating a vegetarian diet for 17 years, due to the inability to digest meat.

Copper is mostly absorbed in the duodenum of the intestine and excess is excreted in bile. It is found in the brain and liver, but it is also in the musculoskeletal system. Copper is needed for iron assimilation, formation of hemoglobin & red blood cells, enzyme reactions, protein metabolism, vitamin C oxidation, beneficial for graying and thinning hair. Copper is required for the formation and involvement of enzymes (tyrosinase, oxidase, cytochrome) that are responsible for the release of energy inside cells (mitochondrial function) and regulates sugar. It is good for bones and it contributes to the function of antioxidants, assisting them in removing free radicals. Copper plays a vital role in the formation and regulation of hormones, such as melatonin and those released by the adrenal glands. It is needed for the production of melanin (the black pigment in skin, hair, and the iris of the eye), neurotransmitters and other neuro-active chemicals, including catecholamines (like epinephrine, noradrenaline and dopamine) and encephalins (compounds that occur naturally in the brain, which are peptides related to the endorphins, with similar physiological effects). Copper catalyses the oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion, and this enables iron to be trapped by transferring the protein carrying iron in the body, which is then transported to tissues for the synthesis of iron-containing compounds, like hemoglobin. Functions that depend on Copper include the production of collagen, the formation of red blood cells and the oxidation of fatty acids. Copper is needed in the absorption of iron, for cholesterol regulation, immune system function including histamine regulation, and for vitamin C to be effective. Copper is needed for the absorption of vitamin C and iron.

Enemies of Copper include malnutrition, intravenous feeding, chronic diarrhea, Crohn's disease, Celiac disease, the use of antacids, burns, kidney disease, high doses of Vitamin C or zinc, which results in copper depletion.

Copper deficiency is rare, but copper and zinc compete with each other for the same absorption sites in the gut, so high zinc levels can prevent copper absorption. Symptoms include poor bone and joint function, brittle bones, vascular disease, hormonal balance issues, brain dysfunction, altered blood cell levels, immune system dysfunction, swelling, anemia, poor skin pigmentation and high cholesterol.

Birth control pills cause excess copper in the body, which can be toxic, this is why zinc becomes depleted as these two minerals are antagonistic to each other.

Food sources of copper include oysters, crab, cod, shrimp, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, peanuts, almonds, walnuts, olives, liver, buckwheat. Supplementation is not usually required. Multi-mineral formulas should balance zinc and iron to ensure optimal absorption. Individual copper supplements are likely to cause problems. Toxicity is indicated by vomiting, diarrhea, dementia and muscle pain.

Fluorine (not fluoride) is never found free in nature. It is the most active element of the halogen group (bromine, chlorine and iodine) Fluorine is intimately involved with calcium and molybdenum in the formation of calcium fluorapatite, which is responsible for normal mineralization of bones and dental enamel. It therefore prevents dental cavities by reducing the solubility of enamel in acids produced by bacteria, however excess causes dental fluorosis-endemic areas (initial loss of tooth shiny appearance and chalk white patches develop, then they become yellow, brown or black) and skeletal fluorosis, which affects bones, tendons and ligaments, followed by pain, neck and joint pain and stiffness. Fluorine also helps prevent heart disease and osteoporosis.

Deficiency is highly unlikely.

Food sources include muscles and other shellfish, kelp and tea. Supplementation is not necessary because this trace element is found in soil, water, plants and animals. Unfortunately, industry has deliberately confused the minds of the public to accept fluoride with fluorine and added it to public water and toothpaste. Fluoride is a poison that does not contribute at all to the health of teeth and even small doses causes fluoride poisoning. Fluoride is the main ingredient in rat poison, because it thins the blood to the point of hemorrhage.

Germanium is responsible for the health benefits of garlic, ginseng, comfrey and mushrooms, which are used in traditional medicine. It enhances the uptake of oxygen in cells and has strong antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral activity. Germanium aids the natural cleansing of toxins and pollutants, support healthy immune system.

A lack of Germanium is associated with infection and immune disorders, heart disease high cholesterol, arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer and many other conditions.

Food sources include garlic, Shitake mushrooms, ginseng and comfrey. Supplementation with Germanium Dioxide has been associated with permanent kidney damage. Used in the treatment of AIDS patients, this is of particular importance. Food is the best source.

Gold is a sleep aid, creates a feeling of well-being (relaxation), supports immune system, vitality and longevity, glandular functions, raise energy level, joint comfort and movement.

Indium supports hormonal systems, immune system, hormone stasis, enhance food and mineral absorption, aids utilization of essential trace elements, increased energy, enhanced sense of well-being, reduced need for sleep. Do not consider use as a supplement until you read this article: http://dcnutrition.com/minerals/Detail.CFM?RecordNumber=74

Iodine is required for metabolic control, the modulation of estrogen and for thyroid function, because it is the main component of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which controls metabolism. Iodine also controls the effects of estrogen on breast tissue and protects against the effects of radioactivity. Iodine is needed for hormone regulation that controls digestion, heart rate, body temperature, nervous system, reproductive system, body weight, and metabolism. It is a natural antibiotic. Iodine is important in the formation of healthy connective tissue.

Enemies of iodine include calcium, manganese, magnesium, fluoride, which act as goitrogens. Also bamboo shoots, broccoli, cabbage, cassava root, kale, lima beans, millet, mustard, peanuts, pine nuts, sweet potato and tea, but their goitrogen effects are inactivated by cooking.

Deficiency of iodine can result in decreased metabolic rate, which contributes to weight gain. It is important that pregnant women have sufficient iodine intake for the formation of the nervous system in their baby, to prevent the new born from being a cretin; having deformation and mental retardation caused by congenital thyroid deficiency. Other symptoms of deficiency include goiter (thyroid gland swelling), chronic fatigue, dry skin, decreased immune function, excess estrogen production and hypothyroidism. It is linked to Parkinson's disease, MS and Alzheimer's disease.

Food sources include kelp, haddock, mackerel, pilchard, plaice, cod, plain yogurt, chicken, but I do not recommend iodized salt (sodium chloride). Too much iodine can reduce thyroid secretions and very high doses if iodine are toxic.

Iron is an energy giver, attracts oxygen and builds blood. It is involved in food metabolism, digestion, elimination, circulation, and normal-ranged blood pressure.

Deficiency symptoms include fatigue and loss of energy, anemia. Iron deficiency can cause a significant increase in heart beat, especially during exercise because iron is needed to produce hemoglobin, an essential substance that transports oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues and organs. Decreased oxygen delivery to tissues and organs will dramatically affect cardiovascular performance and related muscle tissues will suffer. Anemia produces fewer red blood cells, which don't contain adequate hemoglobin to transport oxygen, resulting in extreme fatigue, and over the long term eventual organ damage. The body's cells will begin to die off, a condition known as ischemia. Headaches and shortness of breath, especially during exercise. Severe anemia blocks blood flow, particularly in the extremities and eventually requires amputation, especially of the feet. Fatigue and shortness of breath makes it difficult to keep up usual energy levels and activities required for daily life. Dizziness or feeling lightheaded is an early sign of anemia. It can be accompanied by disturbances of the brain, vision issues, inner ear disorders (vertigo) and gastrointestinal system malfunction. A pale complexion indicates decreased blood flow or lower red blood cell production. Seizures and convulsions may occur. Chronic anemia can develop due to health conditions such as malnutrition, malabsorption, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney failure or bone cancer. Leg cramps, muscle weakness, restless leg syndrome, insomnia. Inadequate hemoglobin causes difficulty concentrating, mood deteriorates, with feelings of extreme irritability or moodiness, inability to focus,, because the essential vitamins, minerals and nutrients like folate, iron and B12 that are needed to make red blood cells are limited. The body powers down slowly. Energy levels dive unexpectedly, causing extreme and unexplained fatigue. M make decisions or concentrate.

Enemies of iron include coffee, tea, calcium-rich foods or drinks with meals containing iron-rich foods, calcium supplements. For better absorption of iron, eat vitamin C foods like broccoli or fruit. Iron can accumulate in body tissues and organs when the liver, spleen and bone marrow are full. Iron toxicity from food is rare, but deadly overdoses are possible with supplements.

Foods that contain iron include beef, liver, clams, oysters, muscles, sardines, spiraling, lentils, beans, spinach, ginger, dark chocolate, olives, pumpkin or sunflower seeds, nuts (pecans, walnuts, almonds, cashews), apricots, peaches, prunes, broccoli, brown rice, wheat germ

Lithium

Manganese is widely distributed in the body, but especially in the intestinal tract, liver and reproductive organs. It is stored in the blood and liver. Manganese helps the body synthesize hemoglobin, like copper, but to a lesser degree. Manganese plays a role in normal reproductive physiology and the production of breast milk. It is helpful in increasing tolerance in diabetics. As a component of different enzymes, Manganese helps metabolize carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It nourishes the brain and nerves, which helps coordinate communication between the brain, nerves and muscles in every part of the body. Manganese is important for all mental faculties/functions, aids memory, promotes natural resistance and restorative functions. It strengthens tendons, tissues, ligaments, and linings in and outside of organs. Called the "Mineral of Life" it aids and promotes natural functions, supports cell walls, aiding in proper contraction/relaxation of muscles, cellular detoxification, and health maintenance with 84 trace elements.

Deficiency symptoms include poor growth, digestive disorders, abnormal bone formation, infertility and impotence in men.

Food sources include whole grains, seeds, nuts, shellfish and organ meats.

Molybdenum regulates pH, boosts metabolism – helps burn fat, promotes general well being, aids in carbohydrate metabolism, aids sleep, contributes to the function of the nervous system and kidneys, plays a role in energy production on a cellular level.

The body's requirements for healthy function are very small, and the mineral occurs naturally in foods, so nutritional deficiency in humans is rare. As a component of coenzymes that are necessary for the activity of xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. Genetic sulfite oxidase deficiency results from the inability to form the molybdenum coenzyme, despite the presence of adequate molybdenum in the diet, resulting in intellectual disability, seizures, opisthotonos and lens dislocation. Deficiency symptoms resulting in sulfite toxicity were tachycardia, tachypnea, headache, nausea, vomiting and coma.

Beans and legumes contain more per serving than any other food. Also almonds, cashews, yogurt (organic, plain), cottage cheese, oats, bare

Platinum is vital for cellular longevity and vitality, energize the human cell, stimulate brain cells to aid sleep patterns. May help support the immune system.

Selenium is supposed to naturally occur in soil and the water supply, but those sources are depleted. Selenium strengthens immunity by producing more antibodies. It improves the function of phagocytic cells, which destroy bacteria, fungi and viruses. Selenium works synergistically with vitamin E to produce a better antioxidant effect. It protects cell membranes and tissue from damage. It reduces the risk of cancer, regenerates a damaged liver, alleviates menopausal distress, checks dandruff, neutralizes certain carcinogens, prevents against heart disease, reduces asthma attacks and the symptoms of shingles. Selenium promotes normal body growth, supports fertility, encourages tissue elasticity, potent antioxidant, reduces the retention of toxic metals in the body, and crucial for the proper functioning of heart muscle.

Deficiency increases the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases, and leads to premature aging. Selenium deficiency plays a role in low thyroid hormone production.

Food sources are whole grains, but they provide inadequate levels.

Rubidium

Silicon (Silica) is distributed widely in dusts and sands, so it is the second most abundant element, after oxygen, but it very rarely occurs as the pure, free element in nature. Silicon is needed for the synthesis of elastin and collagen and partners with calcium for healthy bones, with glucosamine for joint health, and with antioxidants for healthy arteries and cardiovascular function. It is necessary for the synthesis of vitamin B1 (Thiamine) in the body, for proper function of nerve cells and tissues, for controlling the transmission of nerve impulses, for shiny skin and bright eyes, faster healing and for strong bones and the growth of hair, nails and teeth. Silicon helps prevent against TB, skin and mucous membrane disorders.

Deficiency leads to osteoporosis, poor hair and bones and increased sensitivity to cold.

Food sources include whole grains, corn, apple, guava, oranges, raisins, honey, cherries, almonds, dates, walnuts, cucumber, celery, onions, cabbage, spinach, endive, carrots, turnips, eggplant, red beets, pumpkin and fish. I supplement with Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.

Silver acts as a potent natural antibiotic. During the plague, those of royal status ate with gold flatware, while nobility and the wealthy of a lesser social status used silver knives, forks, spoons, plates, bowls and cups. Peasants used wood utencils and pewter. The royals and peasants got sick and those who's food was served with silver did not succumb to the illness.

Vanadium is a silver-white metallic rare element that is present in the body in a minute amount. It is biologically important to normal cell function and development. Vanadium helps maintain blood sugar levels that are in the normal range by its insulin-like effects in the liver, skeletal muscles and fat that surrounds organs. It also helps regulate cholesterol and is considered helpful in preventing heart attacks and diabetes. Vanadium supports circulatory system and helps maintain cholesterol.

Food sources include corn, buckwheat, garlic, whole wheat, radish, olives, apples, green beans, cabbage, carrot, tomatoes, onions, beets, parsley, sunflowers, lettuce and plums.

Zinc is mostly found in the bones, teeth and pancreas, and in trace amounts are in all tissues, but exists in the body mostly in combination with other constituents. It is vital in several enzyme and pancreatic functions. It is an essential element of insulin and forms a compound with insulin that prolongs the action of insulin. The pancreas contains zinc, which helps the pancreas store insulin. Zinc promotes normal growth and development, sexual maternity and function, maintenance of body tissues and wound healing, immunity and is needed for the assimilation of vitamins and transportation of vitamin A to the retina. It is required for the manufacture of hydrochloric acid, to digest protein. Zinc helps to decrease the duration of a cold and is a remedy for fatigue. Zinc is an anti-oxidant that aids the immune system and synthesis of DNA.

Deficiency causes lack of appetite and taste, skin lesions, slow growth, reproductive system dysfunction, baldness, anemia, delayed genital maturation, reduced or absent gonad secretions of hormones, abnormal enlargement of the liver, mental apathy, diarrhea, eczema, dermatitis (esp. around the mouth) and the inability to digest protein. Excess Zinc causes vomiting, diarrhea, kidney damage and a loss of iron and copper in the body.

Food sources include whole wheat, oats, millet, quinoa, amaranth, nuts, lean meats, legumes, crabs, sardines, oysters, eggs, cheese and fish.

General information I found useful:
Most minerals should be taken early in the day except for Gold, Calcium, Copper, and Chromium. Gold will promote a restful sleep.

Platinum, Potassium and Selenium should be taken in the morning as they have a tendency to stimulate the system.

Unless they are naturally occurring together in food or water, Zinc, Molybdenum and Copper cancel one another out when taken together as supplements.

Copper, Selenium, and Iron are very powerful minerals, so I use only as directed. Selenium and Iron are both minerals that will affect your sleep pattern if not taken EARLY IN THE DAY. Copper and Selenium may cause irritability.

Calcium is a potent mineral. Please start with a low dose and work up to the recommended dosage.

Silver may be taken daily if desired, however, when one is ill or if your immune system is lacking, it may be needed daily as a secondary support for the immune system.

Minerals are the often forgotten essential elements for good health. People think of minerals in terms of strong teeth and bones, but minerals are far more important than that. Every living cell depends on minerals for proper function, structure, and electrical conductivity.

In summary, This is only the beginning of our understanding about how nutrients work. Just one mineral not showing up screws-up the working within the body, because they all work synergistically. For this reason, it is very important to consume a high quality real food diet of properly prepared foods. We need a full spectrum approach to ensure we are getting adequate mineral intake, not just supplementing with some or one or two individual minerals. That will always throw off the mineral balance in the body. Be sure to consume a wide array of fresh real whole foods in season and properly prepared. You can have all the air, water, protein, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins you want, but you won't achieve health and wellness without a complete balance of minerals in the correct form. When given the right materials in the right form, the body can do amazing things to promote its own health.

I have researched and tried several mineral supplement. Some I literally threw in the trash because they made me sick. The best ionic mineral supplement I have found is Eidon Ionic Minerals (eidon.com 1-800-700-1169). The most economical combination I can come up with is the Multi Mineral Liquid Concentrate (Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Chromium, Selenium, Iodine, Silica, Sulfur, Boron) and Selenium Liquid Concentrate. During hot summer days I add Electrolytes Liquid Concentrate (Chloride, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, Chromium).

Disclaimer: This information is not intended to diagnose, treat or cure, but is for educational purposes only. You alone are responsible for your use or misuse of this information.